The report provides information about the human causalities due to water transport accidents in Egypt in 5 years, specifically from July 1st 2011, to June 30th 2016.
There has been archived and recorded 78 Water transport accident in Egypt, resulting in 291 deceased in addition to other 291 survived. This report includes only accidents caused human causalities across water main waterbodies’ within the Egyptian territorial waters. While, excludes
· Cases of illegal immigration.
· Cases of criminal relevance.
· Cases of individual drownings.
· Cases of falling of road transportation in waters (as long as it is not relevant to water transportation).
As for nationality classification of the deaths, there were 287 Egyptians and 4 foreigners. Gender based classification reveals 250 males, and 21 females recorded. While the provided data states 224 adults and 67 children of deaths.
According to the means of transportation used, there has been recorded
· 178 deaths through a boat.
· 83 deaths through a ferryboat.
· 20 deaths using a jet boat.
· 18 deaths by a felucca
· 1 death in Tugboat, and another in Armored Amphibious.
With regards to the type of waterbody where accidents took place, we found out 200 deaths in Nile River, and another case in Suez gulf, while there have been 14 deaths in each of the red and the Mediterranean Sea. In addition, it was recorded 11 deaths in the main lakes of Egypt, and 6 deaths in Suez Canal.
The sources defined the causes of accidents as follows, a number of 85 deaths because of a crash accident. Moreover, there are 57 deaths due to cases of road transport fell from the ferryboat, other 49 deaths due to climatic reasons, 24 deaths because of technical failure, 12 deaths because of fire or short circuit, while 64 deaths as a result of imbalance in the mean of transportation for undefined reasons.
Methodology of Archiving (General framework).
Issue: Human casualties in Water transport accidents in Egypt.
Clarifications about the report methodology and standards of adopting accidents.
1- This document includes only a primary inventory, with the purpose of revealing the pattern, the detailed and the internal context of the accidents and its conditions as well as main its elements. It does not necessarily represent the actual total number according to the same identified standards.
2-The document includes only water transport accidents causing human casualties (at least one death), excluding whatever is below this ex. Injuries or survival without injuries.
3- Provided that, it includes only the accidents occurred across the main Egyptian waterbodies (Nile river and both branches Damietta and Rashid, Red sea, The Mediterranean sea, and the five lakes [Manzala, Barduil, Borolous, Naser, and the Great bitter lakes]), excluding any other waterbodies such as Nile canals, streams, discharge canals, or any accidents outside of Egyptian territorial water.
4-Additionally, the document does not include accidents caused by illegal immigration or escape across the borders.
5- The document does not include water transportation accidents linked to criminal conditions for instance, shooting a boat or a ship, chasing criminals, armed attacks on security forces or a quarrel about passengers who ride first in their boats.
6- The document excludes accidents linked to limited transportation in resorts for example jet skis, or during rowing as a sport.
7- The document does not include any accident of buses, microbuses or cars drowning in water ex. (A car falling from a bridge) except for what is linked to water transportation for instance, (Car falling from a ferryboat).
8- The document does not include accident occurred inside ports as long as it is not linked to water transportation for ex. (A fire in administrative facilities caused mortalities).
9-The document does not include drowning accidents related to climate change not connected to a waterbody, in particular, drowning accidents in Alexandria due to heavy rain in 2015).
10- The document does not include accidents where, a passenger or more died due to health conditions, limited short circuit or, deaths as a result of passengers’ imbalance. The accidents recorded are not about individuals cases, but a complete accident of water mean of transportation.
11-The document does not include individual drowning cases or accidents without using water transportation such as, swimming, diving, showering, washing, suicide, fights, or fishing from land). It also does not include the aforementioned examples in case of crashing into a water transport method as long as the deceased was not a passenger. To be more specific, there is an example of, a jet boat hitting a swimmer lead to death. There is a current difficulty to gather these data. Moreover, its archive is prepared in a different context and conditions.
12- In case of finding dead bodies without defining whether it is linked to a water transport method or not, then it is not included in the document.
13- The document does not include any releases about rescuing method or the role of different aid agencies as there is no available information for each case included.
Review of data Sources:
Sources of data used in building information structure are secondary sources (not verified by primary resources), furthermore, it has been clarified in a detailed manner inside the data archive.
There are two channels of data gathering.
1- First channel: Main sources relaying on the actual accident.
Defined as the used sources to record a certain accident concerning water transportation where there were human casualties in a specific time and place. The majority of these sources was official bodies, through mass media transferred from security or judicial bodies as main sources to adopt the incident, except from few cases adopted from press sources.
2-Second channel: The complementary sources for the sake of deriving information about the details of accidents. The accident shall be adopted from the first channel to be considered for details in the second channel, which relays on official and unofficial bodies to support information hierarchy.
Descriptive data or metadata provided is the most precise between all the available data received and/or gathered. However, it is not fully accurate, as it considered the narrative of accidents from the official bodies. Besides, there are a set of hypothesis and limited inferences in certain domains according to methodological standards and data analysis. Elaboration can be provided upon request.
Cases of deaths and survivals
-The accidents were adopted due to recording at least one death case, while persons considered as lost, were adopted between deaths after a certain period of time.
-Survivals consider both the injured cases and the survived persons without any injuries.
– The minimum number of survivals was assumed as follows; a presence of at least one other person, for instance, a driver. Unless, the driver was recorded between deaths, particularly in a ferryboat or any other specific water mean of transportation.
The archive covers all the Egyptian governorates.
Egyptian Governorates were categorized as;
· Central governorates: Cairo, Giza, and Alexandria.
· Delta governorates: Qalubiya, Dakahlia, Shraqia, Gharbeya, Munofeya, Buhyrah, Kafr-eshaikh, and Damietta.
· Canal cities: Port-said, Ismailia, and Suez.
· Upper Egypt governorates: Fayoum, Beni-suef, Minia, Asyut, Suhag, Qena, and Aswan.
· Border line governorates: North Sinai, South Sinai, Matrouh, Red sea, and wadi-gedid.
Scope of covered Waterbodies
The report covered the main waterbodies inside the Egyptian territorial water excluding small streams and discharge canals.
Waterbodies were categorized as;
· Nile River; including Damietta and Rashid branches (mentioned in the report and archive as Nile river) while it does not included and streams, discharge canals, or other river canals).
· Suez Canal.
· The Gulf of Suez.
· Lakes: Only covering cases from Manzala, Barduil, Borolous, Naser, and the Great bitter lakes, between all collected.
· The Mediterranean Sea.
Time Scale covered in the report;
-The Archive covers a period of 5 years’ time starting from July 1st 2011 until June 30th 2016. Moreover, it has been divided into biyearly durations in the statistical layout.
-With regard to the adopted date of the accident, it represents the actual date of the main accident itself, rather the dates of judicial proceedings, committal to remand or court’s procedures. As, certain cases might take longer time in courts, to make it fall outside the defined Period of time.
Categorization by water mean of transportation;
(Name of Transportation) column was customized in the detailed archive document. It contains the known name of the means, owner’s name, the concerned body or authority.
Sub-category, name of water mean of transportation includes;Felucca: Woody sailboat, also known as boat. Recorded only upon available description.
Jet boat: a boat with an installed jet motor. Recorded only upon available description.
Ferryboat: Commonly used to transport passengers, road transport, and traded loads across Nile banks’.
Amphibious: mean of transportation used in land and waters as well, used in military purposes.
Categorization by passengers type;
Fishermen: any person boards on, with the purpose of fishing.Passengers: any person boards on, with any purpose other than fishing. It is considered as the default category of passengers.
Regular troops: any passenger or tools on board related to the ministry of interiors, or the armed forces.
Road transport: any traded loads, tools, road transport boards on water mean of transportation.
Categorization according to purpose of mobility;
Fishing: boarding on means of water transportation mainly for fishing.
Trade: boarding with the objective of trading.
Tourism: boarding on means of water transportation for restoration, resorting, tours, either Egyptians or foreigners.
Family: boarding on means of water transport for any purpose apart from Fishing, Trade, or Tourism. It is the normally assumed purpose as the majority is related to ferryboats between villages and sub-governorates.
Military and security training procedures: boarding on means of water transportation related to the ministry of interior affairs, or the armed forces for special purposes.
Categorizing by the causes of the accidents;
Climate: Any reason relevant to changes in weather, such as high sea level, wind speed, bad sight due to fog.
Crush: accidents caused by a crush in another water transport, concrete column, or in a bridge.
Technical: concerning maintenance, technical expiry, engine dysfunction, or any other technical reason related to the means of transportation.
Fall of road transport from the water transport: basically as described a road transportation fall from water transport causing imbalance in the ferryboat or such lead to drawn or accidents.
Fire: any accidents related to fire or electrification due to presence of gas cylinders or short circuit.
Imbalance due to unknown reasons: directly, the imbalance of water transport or the person without notifying any reasons lead to death.
Categorizing accidents according to direct criminal Procedures as follows;
It refers to the direct action taken after arresting the accused. It explains if the accused was presented to the prosecutor, whether its decision was remanded in custody or release, or there were no criminal proceedings taken among information collected or received.
Arrest and Detention: defined as the case of arresting persons involved in the accidents and charging them, then committal to custody. Either they were released afterwards or not.
No Criminal Procedure Action: The case of failure to reach any criminal proceedings against the accused by the prosecutor.
There happen to be a Custom column in the Archive for the (Number and Character of Defendants) concluding the every accused in connection with the accident either governmental responsible, or those responsible for possessing and managing the mean of water transport (available for 16 accidents).
Similarly, there is another column for the (Number of a Police Reports or Petition about the accidents) to collect all serials and numbers of the official documents covering the accidents (available for 13 accidents).
Another column for the (Accusations) to including all claimed charges (available for 4 accidents).
In addition, there is a column specialized for the (The Last Criminal Procedures) to gather all of the decisions of the prosecutor or courts’ judges in cases related to accidents (available for 5 accidents).
Lastly, there is a column for (Compensation for victims) which includes all financial compensations from the government to the victims and their relatives (available for 5 accidents).
The Concerned Medical Authority:
there is a column for the concerned medical authority in the archive including the name of the hospital or medical center where the victims sent to, or the bodies of deceased, according to the aforementioned sources.