This report aims to monitor the incidents of road accidents in Egypt over a period of four years starting from 1 January 2014 to 31 December 2017. During the given period, 11764 incidents were recorded and archived. In 2017, the year with the biggest record, the number of incidents reached 3312, incidents in 2016 amounted to 3041, while in 2015 number of 2747 incidents was documented, as recorded, 2014, had the minimum number of incidents amounted to 2664 incidents.
The geographical frame of the observatory is divided into two parts, the first for the governorates, incidents of each governorate are monitored separately, and the other for the regions. Also, regions are monitored separately. According to monitoring results, the highest rate of incidents has taken place in Behira with a total of 1155 cases, the governorate with the lowest was Luxor with only 121 accidents. For regions, Greater Cairo area had 2158 incidents, while Upper Egypt region was the lowest with 760 incidents.
According to road type classification, the largest number of incidents occurred on governorates internal roads with a total of 4247 incidents, followed by the desert road, which had a total of 1948 incidents. The agricultural road had 1243, the road to Upper Egypt had 1234, and the International coastal road had 1017.
The number of affected vehicles according to vehicles general classification reached 8774 for transportation vehicles, while the number of cargo vehicles was 4295, there were 3493 vehicles that could not be classified, 560 government vehicles, 2054 motorcycles and the lowest number 32 vehicles were classified as “other”.
According to the observatory, the classification of an “accident of two vehicles” recorded the largest number of incidents with a total of 5257 incidents, followed by the classification of “one-vehicle accident” with a total of 4885, an “accident of multiple vehicles” recorded 760 While the classification of a “Pedestrians hit by vehicle” recorded 554 incidents, which is the lowest number if we excluded 308 incidents classified under the name of “unspecified”.
For the type of incident classification, 6017 incidents were classified as “vehicle collisions”, recording the largest number, followed by a “vehicle roll-over” with a total of 4436 incidents, while “vehicle ignition” was the lowest number with only 24 incidents.
For the incidents without casualties in each province, the governorates of Cairo and Giza have had the majority of incidents, with 300 and 238 incidents, while the lowest number recorded in Luxor and Port Said with only 3 incidents.
For the type of incident classified according to road classification, “vehicle collision” and “vehicle roll-over” classifications are the most common, for example in the regional ring road recorded the largest number with 99 incidents, as well as, Greater Cairo ring road recorded 305 incidents, and the International coastal road recorded 515 incidents, While “vehicle roll-over” had the largest number in the classification of “other roads”, where Upper Egypt Road recorded 662 incidents, the road between two provinces, 168 incidents, and desert road 911 incidents.
The number of passenger vehicles reached 8774 vehicles, the largest number of which occurred on the desert road with a total of 1601 vehicles, followed by cargo vehicles with a total of 4295 vehicles, the largest number of which occurred within governorate internal roads with a total of 1291 vehicles.
In terms of the number of incidents by accident and general vehicles classification, the “accident for two vehicles” category, “passenger” vehicles ranked the largest number with 4517 passenger vehicles, 2578 transport vehicles, and 1576 motorcycles, while one vehicle accident recorded the largest number of 324 government vehicles.
For the total number of vehicles included in the monitoring, the number of private cars represented the largest number, with 5158 vehicles, followed by the cargo vehicles with 2323 vehicles, the lowest number was vehicles classified as Tricycle, such as tuk-tuk with 349 vehicles and 123 vehicles. As for motorcycles, There were 1582 motorcycles.
As for the annual casualties, 2014 had the highest rate with a total of 2797 deaths, while 2016 was the lowest with a total of 2369. The observatory also indicated that 2016 had the highest number of injuries with a total of 10833 injured, while 2017 was the lowest with a total of 10233 injured, and for the incidents without casualties, it reached 215 in 2014 and rose in 2017 to 228 incidents.
Monitoring the geographical track of the number of people affected by road accidents in Egypt during the period from 2014 to 2017, 52290 people were affected (42045 injured: 10245 died), Beheira governorate topped the largest number of deaths with a total of 1222 deaths, followed by Minya with a total of 750 deaths. As for injuries Beheira governorate had the largest number of cases with a total of 3697 followed by Minya governorate with a total of 3532 cases.
For the number of people affected by road classification, “road within the governorate” classification scored the highest number of casualties with a total of 12827 injuries, 3181 deaths, followed by “Desert Road” classification, with 8223 injuries and 1747 deaths. , The “Ring Road of Greater Cairo” was the least with a total of 670 injured, 233 deaths, followed by the Regional Ring Road with 668 casualties and 205 deaths.
For the type of incident, according to number of people affected, the number of people affected the most were in the “collision of vehicle” classification with a total of 27758 affected, divided into 21641 injured and 6117 dead, followed by the number, classification of vehicle rollover, a total of 20982 affected, divided into 17825 injured and 3175 dead. For incidents with the least number of people affected, classification of “Pedestrian Accidents” reached a total of 889 affected, were divided into 387 injured and 502 died. As for the classification of “unspecified collision” reached a total of 1243 affected, were divided into 1054 injured and 189 died and the classification of “vehicle ignition” had the lowest total with only 12 people affected.
Information gathering mechanisms and Information construction credibility
The scope of the research was determined from January 2014 until December 2017. The proposed duration of research was 3 months, but it lasted month more for the sake of accuracy standards and information completeness. Also, the category and type of accidents that the research aims to observe, were determined according to some initial criteria of the researchers’ perception.
Type of sources and credibility of information building construction
First: sources of information
Secondary as a context of sociology, and primary as a context of history and archival, decentralized, dependent on local media of decentralized nature spread in the provinces, which rely heavily on daily and periodic data of the official bodies, Which gives reliability to their data and transmission it literally. This file contains fact-based information (act/accident, dimensions in terms of temporal and spatial dimension and type of vehicle, victim data and reaction) and not information based on narrative (how the incident occurred and perception of each party), Therefore, this version of the information study was limited to these sources.
Second: Methodology of data collection and stages of dealing with
Based on the social sciences known methodology of Data Triangulation and Data Authentication, where we build a huge synaptic multi-sources information pyramid, to install every corner of it strongly, and the process of verification of information through different stages of comparison, evaluation, taking into account the factors of aging, context, bias, exaggeration, and poverty or over-information.
Therefore, most of the cases listed in our database have more than one source, and all sources are described in detail and in complete transparency in each case. Our process of dealing with information has a group of phases, First of all, the phase of understanding the context, the nature of data structure and source of information, followed by the dismantling of information content and its fragmentation into elements (variables), the phase of building data classifications, filling the information gaps of any of the variables by reconstructing the levels of information sources, the phase of constructing descriptive data for the basic variables, available at 100% accuracy, then the assumptions with a minimum accuracy of 90% according to academic standards. Finally, a comprehensive evaluation phase for all collected pieces of information and numbers, in terms of their realism and reasonableness, and there may be subsequent processes on the resulted data from previous stages.
Third: Classification of sources
The sources were classified into three types as follows:
1. Official source: Issued by official sources of the state.
2. Press source: Incidents directly monitored by the press, either by the parties of an incident or just by media coverage
3. Missing news: incident that lost their sources during the input process.
Fourth: Methods of information monitoring
At the beginning of the research, the researcher used the words “accident, collision” within the internal search of the site “Masress”, compared with Google, it gives the best results and provides more facts, but Masress contains several obstacles such as it has limited research, Only 1000 pages, which was the reason to stop relying on it, and use: youm7, almasryalyoum, akhbarak.net , Google, using search words: collision, rollover.
Fifth: Evaluation of data credibility
The observatory relied on several sources, of which 11687 were official, 71 Press sources. The researcher lost 6 sources during the entry stage. Each event takes an assessment for the type of its main source and the details of occurrence and its accuracy. from the researcher’s point of view, the evaluation showed that there were 7297 incidents had an average evaluation, 4028 acceptable, 406 good, and 33 unacceptable.
Sixth: Tools used in collecting and archiving data
The researcher used Excel program to enter data, analyze it, and conduct statistics.
Win32Pad program was used as an assistant to transfer text without formatting. In case of copying or moving data from the excel sheet to another file, the program helps maintain the space between the cells, making it easier to copy or move.
There are tools that helped the researcher during internet browsing, such as (adblock to block ads, reading mode, tab suspender, in addition to some css customizations), to remove any distractors in the source page, and to focus on the text only, which speeds up monitoring and input process.
The researcher completed input of about 3546 events in about two months, while the rest of incidents which reached 8218 incidents were entered in about 3 months, and the clearing phase and the addition of metadata were completed in a period of one week.
The researcher completed the construction of the statistical and data systems in Two days. writing the methodology, standards, and conceptual framework completed in about 5 days.
Monitoring map and conceptual framework
First: Incident data
It includes data on the chronological definition, geographical, descriptive data of the incident, and includes the following:
1. Incident number: Contains incidents numbering from 1 to 11764
2. Annual Classification: Determining the year of the accident, (2014,2015,2016,2017).
3. Bi-annual classification: The chronology of the facts has been divided bi-annually.
4. Monthly Classification: The chronology of the facts is divided monthly.
5. Date of the incident: the date of the occurrence of the incident according to the available information. In case of absence of such information, the incident shall be recorded at the date of publication in the source.
6. Territory: Determining the geographical region in which the incident occurred and is divided into:
◦ Alexandria Region: Alexandria, Beheira, Matrouh.
◦ Delta Region: El Monofeya, El Gharbeya, El Dakkahleya, Damietta, Kafr El Sheikh.
◦ Greater Cairo Region: Cairo, Giza, Qaliobeya.
◦ Canal Region: El Sharqia, Port Said, North Sinai, South Sinai, Ismailia, Suez.
◦ Southern Upper Egypt: Qena, Luxor, Aswan, Sohag, Red Sea.
◦ Northern Upper Egypt Region: Minya, Fayoum, Beni Suef.
◦ Central Upper Egypt: Assiut, New Valley.
7. Governorate is the province the road that witnessed the incident is located in, it included all the province of the republic.
8. The incident location: determines the route that the incident took place within its boundaries as mentioned in the source.
9. Road Classification: the road is classified into desert road, agricultural road, road between two provinces, road within the province. Apart from the international coastal road and the Upper Egypt Road, due to their large number of events, the researcher preferred to classify them independently. The classification of Upper Egypt means both the Eastern Desert Road and the Western Desert Road.
10. Place of an incident in detail: mentions detailed location of the incident according to the source available information
11. Precinct of the incident: the precinct of the incident is mentioned by the source, or it is inferred from hospital, or police department, which received a notification about the incident.
12. The extent of incident: data that classifies the incidents according to the number of vehicles included in t, one, two vehicles or more
13. Type of incident: classifies the occured incidents according to its nature , from a collision with a vehicle, collision with a solid object, Pedestrian and vehicle accidents, roll-over, ignition.
Second: Vehicle data
1. Type of vehicle: The type of vehicles that were part of the accident, such as: (private car, taxi, microbus, bus, mini truck pickup truck, trucks, heavy trucks, tractor, tuk-tuk, Tricycle, Government Motorcycle, Other, Not Specified).
• Government vehicle: any vehicle that follows the government, whether civil services, such as ambulance, firefighter, or security such as police.
• Other means: bicycle, cart, etc.
• Non-specific means: the vehicle cannot be identified.
2. Vehicle classification: The vehicles were divided into major categories, as follows:
◦ General classification of passenger vehicles: “private – taxi – minibus – bus”.
◦ General classification of transport vehicles: “mini truck – pickup truck – trucks – heavy trucks – agricultural tractor”.
◦ General Category of Motorbikes: “Tuk Tuk-Tricycle-Motorcycle”.
3. Detailed cause of the incident: The reason for the occurrence, if available by the source.
4. Total vehicles: specifies the number of vehicles that caused the incident.
5. Material Losses: Monitor the losses caused by the incident according to the source.
Third: Affected people data
The total number of persons affected, their nationality, nationality classification (foreign, Egyptian, foreign and Egyptian), the total number of casualties, the total number of deaths, and their gender (male, female).
Fourth: Other data
The classification contains information related to the hospital, police record number, and observation notes on the incident.
Fifth: Sources data
Includes source information (news text, source link), its classification (official source, news source, missing news), and its rating (good, medium, acceptable, unacceptable).
1. The timeline for this monitoring process runs from 1 January 2014 to 31 December 2017 and is statistically divided on an annual and biannual basis.
2. The date of the publication is considered as the date of the incident unless otherwise stated or inferred.
3. The geographical area includes all governorates of the Republic.
4. The observatory included the incidents of road accidents in Egypt, but the following was excluded:
◦ Incidents in closed spaces, such as workshops, garage, university.
◦ Accidents in which include “train” are considered outside of the observatory context (2).
◦ Incidents caused by security pursuits (3).
◦ Incident of falling tree on a parked car (4).
5. The term “unavailable” is used to denote the lack of information of the source and difficulty of assumption.
6. In case the source refers to more than one incident in one news or event, each incident is recorded separately.
7. In the case of an accident, resulted injuries occurred due to drivers quarrel, are not counted among incident injures.
8. The “Personal Data of Death” and “Personality Data for Injuries” cells have been prepared, with a specific hierarchy, Initials of the victims’ names was used (out of respect of their privacy and avoidance of harm), their age and jobs if available.
9. This file is considered as a preliminary inventory aims to draw patterns and detailed context of incidents, their data and elements, and may not fully reflect the real total cases according to the specified criteria.
10. The principles of “Non-violation for privacy” and “Do not harm” are part of principles adhered to in this work, and Daftarahwal is not responsible for the extent of professionalism on what is published through media. Bearing in mind that there are deleted links or may be deleted or changed later because of time limitation, or changing the links or closure of media platforms.
The inclusion of incidents Hypotheses
1. If the incident district is not mentioned, it is inferred from the police station where it was recorded or the hospital to which the victims were transferred.
2. If the governorate is not mentioned, it can be inferred by determining the geographic location of the district that reached the incident or the hospital to which the victims were transferred.
3. If governorate is not mentioned, it can be inferred by determining the geographic location of the police station that reported the incident or the hospital to which the victims were transferred.
4. In case the incident was a motorcycle roll-over, and the source did not specify the gender of the driver, the researcher assumes that he is male, based on the fact that males are the largest number of the total affected by the observatory.
5. In the case of those affected “construction workers,” they are assumed to be males.
6. The researcher found a gender diversity “males and females” among agricultural workers, so no specific gender assumed for them if the source did not specify.
7. In the incident, if the same vehicles are exposed to more than one accident, such as: (collision of two cars leading to their rollover), the researcher chooses the main cause of the incident as its classification.
8. Petroleum transport vehicles are considered heavy trucks since most of the incidents with accurate information refer to petroleum transport vehicles as heavy transport vehicles.
9. In case the source contains more than one incident, and the total number of casualties and vehicles is reported, each incident is recorded separately. The number of vehicles and the people affected is distributed equally among them, as long as the source does not specify the number of vehicles or people in each incident.
10. The researcher assumed that nationality of victims was “Egyptian”, as long as the source did not state otherwise.
11. The researcher preferred to use “Central Upper Egypt”, instead of the “Assiut Region” (9), as it indicates more than the governmental term.
12. The use of the words “person, injured, deceased” does not indicate the gender of the victim, but is used to refer to both male and female.
13. When work on this report started, affected people were classified by age to “adult and minors”, it was ignored later, due to lack of information.
14. The researcher noted the duplication of the same incident in some sources(3) at different times, as some incidents are repeated in the news for 2-3 days, except for one incident was repeated again in another source after 5 weeks.
15. Based on the previous point, the researcher believes that there is a possibility of duplicated data, because of lack of information mentioned in the incidents report, it is difficult to distinguish each event, and whether it’s repeated incident or a new one, and therefore, if the researcher believes that the incident is repeated, reviewing the essential information will be a must, such as: (location of the incident, number of vehicles, type) and if there is a difference in this information, both have been added. If the difference is in the number of victims, the researcher prefered to record the incident from the official source, and if all the sources were official, the researcher selected the most recent one.
Challenges and Problems
1. The research took longer than expected, especially in the entry stage, due to the researcher’s encounter with some organizational obstacles because it is his first project and several other regulatory factors.
2. The number of available resources decreases with the aging of time, which is reflected in the number of incidents. In 2017 there were 3312 incidents, while in 2014 it reached 2664.
3. The researcher encountered obstacles related to the source, such as:
◦ Masress site has been repeatedly down, which has hindered monitoring.
◦ The limited search, with results of 1000 pages only, Led to stop relying on Masress, instead, youm7, almasryalyoum, akhbarak.net, Google, were used using search words: accident, collision, rollover. These words were finally chosen after experiencing other words which neither give better results nor fitted with research methodology, like, (killed, death, injured).
◦ Google works with algorithms that may ignore some search results, especially with time obsolescence, so it is not recommended to be used alone during search for incidents.
4. Most of the sources don’t have a detailed information about incident, which caused lack of descriptive information and statistics of incidents reasons.
5. The sources don’t give sufficient information about the incident. They often ignore to mention the district or dividing the total number of victims to males and females.
6. Because of the lack of information from the sources about the classification of victims gender , the researcher encountered a problem in dividing the total number to males and females. This was needed in the statistics stage to count males and females. There were several suggested solutions to deal with this problem, such as:
◦ Dividing the number of victims according to the ratio of males to females in the report of Central Agency for Public Mobilization and Statistics.
◦ Dividing the number of victims according to the ratio of males to females in the source incidents.
◦ Ignoring dividing the number of victims, and make statistics for total number only.
After getting back to researchers and academics, we settled on the last solution, because previous solutions will not guarantee the accuracy of information.
7. The Observatory contained the “Government Reaction” box at the beginning and has been deleted since it is always “legal recording of the incident and informing the prosecution to initiate investigations”, so, there was no different reaction in every event that can be classified and used in statistics.
8. The observatory contained a column called “Time of Incident” intended to determine the time of the incident, whether it was morning or evening to consider whether there was a relationship between the time and the increase or decrease in the number of incidents, but was subsequently deleted due to lack of information in the source.
9. The majority of the sources don’t separate the nationality of victims, so that they can’t be classified according to their nationality.
10. The number of available incidents according to the method of research does not reflect the total number of incidents in reality.
11. After completing the monitoring phase, the researcher developed a personal intuition that there may be some editorial policies in the sources, in addition to the means of source accessibility , may contribute intentionally or not, focusing on incidents in a particular road, city or governorate, Which shows a certain governorate with the highest number of accidents, and another with the lowest, which may not be true in reality.
12. The researcher encountered a problem in Excel, since any modification or additions in the columns of the observatory, used to take a long time, but the problem was solved after colleague help, with a unifying format of the whole file in terms of Font size, text direction, text height).
13. No accidents could be found on 2 August 2014, in accordance with the monitoring methodology used.
14. The researcher lost the source of 6 incidents, and they were classified as “missing news” in the Observatory.
15. It is recommended to set the program used to input data, to save automatically every 10 minutes at least, in addition to retention of more than one copy of the file, in different places, on a daily basis, or weekly, or when making fundamental changes.
This section in the report contains figures and statistics on road accidents in Egypt, which were published through press platforms, arranged from newest to oldest, according to the date of publication.
1. Road accidents put Egypt among the 10 worst countries
2.63 thousand victims of road accidents in Egypt annually
3.Road accidents in Egypt: 2000 dead and injured per month
4.26.8% decrease in road traffic fatalities
5.Three main elements responsible for the high rates of road accidents in Egypt
6.Road accidents “harvest” lives and money
7.The most prominent incidents of school buses during the past three years (Infographic)
8.1143 people were killed and 2333 wounded in 2515 traffic accidents during two years at the Cairo axes
9. Security source: 592 people died and 1222 injured because of 1390 accidents in Cairo 2015
10.1035 people were injured in 1111 in a collision in Cairo in 9 months
11. In figures .. Death every half an hour. Egypt is the world’s first in road accidents
12. Road accidents kill 12,000 Egyptians each year
13.Road accidents deaths in Egypt 15 thousand annually
1. Car and train accidents – Central Agency for Public Mobilization and Statistics
2. World report on the state of road safety – WHO.