Over the past five years after the Egyptian revolution: during the period between Feb 11th, 2011 and Feb 20th, 2016, “Daftar Ahwal” initiative has recorded and archived 554 cases of departure and entry ban and arrests in Egyptian Airports, based on activism in the public Space (Political, Human Rights, Journalist, Artistic and Cultural, Religious, Social Movement).
Amid these, there were 534 cases inside ‘Cairo International Airport’, 18 cases inside ‘Borg El Arab Airport’ and only one case inside each ‘Hurghada International Airport’ and ‘Luxor International Airport’.
According to presidential era, there were 36 cases during ‘SCAF’s rule’ (Supreme Council of the Armed Forces), 21 during ‘Mohamed Morsi’s rule’, 279 during ‘Adly Mansour’s rule’ and 218 during ‘Abdel Fattah al-Sisi’s rule’.
Concerning procedure type, there were 56 cases of ‘Travel Ban Based on a Judicial Order Followed by Arrest, another 12 of ‘Travel Ban Based on a Judicial Order without Arrest’, 12 persons who were exposed to ‘Only Travel Ban’, 9 persons who ‘Were on Arrivals Arrest List and Detained Based on a Judicial Order’, 259 persons were exposed to ‘Only Entry Ban’, 83 incidents of ‘Difficulties on Entry’ and finally 15 ‘Arrests during an Incident inside the Airport’.
On another note, regarding nationality, there are 274 ‘Egyptian’ persons who are exposed to these procedures, 81 ‘Arabs’ and 199 of people with ‘Foreign’ nationalities.
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*** An informative Archive ***
This is a link for a full and detailed archive (Excel file uploaded on Google Drive). For a complete and perfect preview, it is recommended to view the file using a PC or Laptop.
*** A statistical analysis ***
*** Visuals ***
*** Methodology and standards for recording, archiving and data management ***
‘Cases of Departure and Entry Ban and Arrests in Egyptian Airports’: it is considered as every procedure or security movement against the passengers inside Egyptian Airports based on activism in the public Space (Political, Human Rights, Journalist, Artistic and Cultural, Religious, Social Movement), whether it is related to an arrest incident, or an incident of stopping for a while then releasing or just departure or entry ban.
Important Explanations about methodology and cases not included in the Report:
1- The gross figure does not represent the total number of the detained people during any period of time based on the same incidents.
2- The report is not considered as a counting for departure and entry ban decisions. It only includes incidents where decisions have been executed against a person inside an Airport (already happened).
3- The report does not include cases of departure ban by any authority outside the Airport field such as departure ban against students as an administrative procedure by the university board or permit ban for travelling towards specific countries by the national security.
4- The report only includes persons who were exposed to these procedures based on activism in the public Space, whether Egyptians, Arabs or foreigners, which are categorized as Political, Human Rights, Journalist, Artistic and Cultural, Religious activities or Social Movement.
5- The report does not include procedures which are related to former or current Egyptian officials based on judicial cases concerned with financial or administrative corruption during their work.
6- The report does not include foreign officials or diplomats which are usual routine procedures except what are related to the political conflict in the region.
7- The report does not include incidents with non-political criminal accusations like murder, robbery and physical assaults. So it does not include direct assaults against Airport policemen, illegal migration or fabrication in official documents.
8- In case of political activity, the report includes all those who were arrested based on judicial cases of ‘Belonging to Muslim Brotherhood’, ‘Committing Violence’ or ‘Breaking the Protest Law’ accusations.
9- The report does not include arrests during protests inside or outside Airport halls such as Cairo Airport policemen or employees’ protests.
10- The report includes the determined procedures even for those in a transit status through an Egyptian Airport where the procedures took place.
11- The report does not include cases of delivering defendants to Egypt after deporting them outside another country’s Airport, as the arrest incident took place outside Egypt.
Information sources and mechanism:
The report depends on secondary sources of information (not primary ones). All sources for each detail are mentioned and clear in the informative archive. Most of sources are media outlet reports and news which mainly depend on Ministry of Interior, in addition to some NGOs and rights activists. Sometimes there are direct published testimonies of persons who are exposed to these procedures.
Metadata for each procedure is as precise as possible according to all available information, but has not necessarily perfect accuracy. The narrative included inside this report refers to official authorities or persons who are exposed to these procedures. There are a definite hypothesis and deduction in a certain extent according to standards, methodology and precise analysis of big data. All that can be explained in details upon request.
The geographic range of the report:
All Egyptian Airports were covered but all the determined procedures were monitored only in Cairo, Borg El Arab, Hurghada and Luxor International Airports.
The time range of the report:
Over the past five years after the Egyptian revolution, during the period between Feb 11th, 2011 and Feb 20th, 2016. The time range is divided according to presidential era where the incident took place as follows:
– SCAF’s rule (the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces): (during the period between Feb 11th, 2011 and Jun 30th, 2012).
– Mohamed Morsi’s rule: (during the period between Jun 30th, 2012 and Jul 3rd, 2013).
– Adly Mansour’s rule: (during the period between Jul 3rd, 2013 and Jun 8th, 2014).
– Abdel Fattah al-Sisi’s rule: (during the period between Jun 8th, 2014 and Feb 20th, 2016).
– The recorded date is considered as the date of procedure or arrest inside an Airport, not the date of accusation incident (date of writing down the police report or judicial case that maybe put the person on the arrest warrant or departure ban list.
The cases are divided according to ‘procedure type’ as follows:
– ‘Travel Ban Based on a Judicial Order Followed by Arrest’: When a passenger is banned from departure and arrested inside an Airport based on a police report or a judicial case.
– ‘Travel Ban Based on a Judicial Order without Arrest’: When a passenger is banned from departure based on a police report or a judicial case but without an arrest warrant.
– ‘Only Travel Nan’: When a passenger is banned from departure without informing him which police report or judicial case is related to this procedure or without access to available information about that.
– ‘Was on Arrivals Arrest List and Detained Based on a Judicial Order’: When a passenger was put on ‘Arrival Arrest List’ based on a police report or a judicial case then arrested when passing through an Airport.
– ‘Only Entry Ban’: When a passenger is banned from entry without being arrested.
– ‘Difficulties on Entry’: When a passenger is exposed to ‘Quickly being interrogated by the Airport security’ or ‘Stopping for a while then releasing’ without banning from entry (especially foreign people, rationally and virtually similar to the third procedure but there is not an order for them as they are unknown).
– ‘Arrest during an Incident inside the Airport’: When a passenger is arrested inside an Airport during an ongoing accusation incident based on activism in the public Space.
The cases are divided according to ‘type of security move’ as follows:
– ‘Quickly Being Interrogated by the Airport Security’: when a person undergoes to an interrogation or investigation by the Airport security without stopping, detention or arrest.
– ‘Stopping for a while then Releasing’: when a person is stopped and detained for a while then being released without being referred to the prosecution.
– ‘Arresting then Referring to the Prosecution’: when a person is arrested and referred to the prosecution based on a police report or a judicial case.
The cases are divided according to ‘activity type’ as follows:
– ‘Political’: is considered as an activity related to political goals either in partisan, movements, groups context or independent political activists. In case of religious groups or social movements with a political activity, they are categorized in ‘Political’ section.
– ‘Human Rights’: is considered as an activity in human rights either in NGOs, companies, groups context or independent rights activists.
– ‘Journalist’: is considered as an activity in press and media field either in TV channels, broadcasts, newspapers or digital media outlets.
– ‘Artistic and Cultural’: is considered as an activity related to art and culture like art crews, singers, writers, authors and publishers.
– ‘Religious’: is considered as an activity related to a religious movement without political activities like a Sunni or Shiite activist or a preacher.
– ‘Social Movement’: is considered as an activity related to categorical demands for a definite societal group without political purposes like a trade union, a charity or Ultras groups.
– Sometimes the security move against a passenger is related to another person’s activity who is relative or has a link to this passenger, so the recorded activity maybe is recorded as the real target. An example for that is when a passenger who is relative to a political public figure is banned from departure, it is recorded as a ‘Political’ activity.
– In case of academics, procedures are recorded as their synchronous activity in one of the six sections mentioned above.
‘Nationality’ of those exposed to these procedures are divided as follows:
– ‘Egyptian’: is every Egyptian citizen even that he has another nationality.
– ‘Arab’: is every Arab citizen except the Egyptians.
– ‘Foreign’: is every person who has a foreign nationality but not an Arab one.